Frankfurt in the 14th and 15th and 16th and 17th century... and in 1944

In 1372, Frankfurt was made a free imperial city. After Frankfurt accepted the Reformation in 1530, it hosted the coronation ceremonies for various emperors from 1562-1792. In the wars of the 17th and 18th centuries, Frankfurt was destructively occupied by foreign forces many times. Frankfurt was part of the ecclesiastic principality of Regensburg and Aschaffenburg created by Napoleon I for Karl Theodor von Dalberg after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, and then converted in 1810 into the grand duchy of Frankfurt. In 1815, the Congress of Vienna restored Frankfurt to free city status and made it the seat of the diet of the German Federation. The first German national assembly was the Frankfurt Parliament which met there in 1848-49. Frankfurt was then annexed by Prussia. The Treaty of Frankfurt, which ended the Franco-Prussian War, was signed there in 1871. It was probably the most important medieval city in Germany and to some, the most beautiful. It was filled with timeless treasures of European culture and history.

Although Frankfurt had been bombed repeatedly in World War Two, 54 times prior to July 25, 1942, the British had not yet aimed at civilian targets. The daylight raid on this day was the first direct civilian attack that took place on Frankfurt. Two weeks later she was bombarded again by 226 bombers. In January of 1943, the British and Americans decided to unite their air forces, and on April 11, the savage attacks began again, followed by another large scale attack on October 4, 1943 when 650 aerial mines, 217,000 incendiary bombs and 16,000 liquid incendiary bombs were dropped by 300 British airplanes.

Frankfurt was further attacked on January 28, 1944 and November 26 and December 20, 1943. Four weeks later, on January 29, 1944, more than 800 American bombers dropped 5,000 high-explosive bombs and 10,000 incendiaries over the entire city. All of these attacks killed people in the high hundreds. On February 8, 1944, 88 American bombers struck, but mostly industrial areas and killed only a few hundred. On March 18, she was hit again. But the attack on March 22 by 800 British bombers destroyed the old city forever in 9,000 separate fires, and by now the human suffering was beyond comprehension. 1,300 high explosive bombs up to 8,000 pounds, 600,000 incendiary bombs and 50,000 incendiary bombs rained death and destruction upon Frankfurt from the medieval city center out. By now, thousands of civilians were dead and 150,000 shelterless. Then, as if that were not enough for the old city which was now just a heap of rubble filled with the stench of rotting bodies, 175 American bombers dropped bombs on the city center to polish it off. The only targets left were the maimed, injured, orphaned, deranged, or elderly people and rescue workers.